Lyrica is the trade name of the drug containing pregabalin. The substance has an anticonvulsant effect, stabilizes mood in patients with affective disorders, and reduces pain for some diseases.
It is used for neuropathic pain caused by postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy.
The drug reduces the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia.
Lyrica is used as a complementary drug in the treatment of epilepsy with partial seizures, both in the presence and absence of secondary generalization.
It is used as part of a combination therapy for generalized anxiety disorder to reduce the level of anxiety.
Drowsiness and dizziness are among the most common adverse reactions (more than 10% of all patients).
In 1 to 10% of patients:
- General side effects: gait disorder, feeling of “intoxication”, fatigue, swelling.
- Nervous system: memory impairment, loss of coordination and concentration, ataxia (loss of coordination when standing or walking), euphoria, paresthesias (numbness, tingling, chills), dysarthria (speech disorder), tremors, confusion, irritability, decreased libido.
- Sense organs: diplopia (double vision), vision clarity disorder.
- Digestive system: increased appetite, dry mouth, vomiting, bloating, and constipation.
- Urogenital system in men: erectile dysfunction.
The following side effects are observed in less than 1% of cases:
- Common side effects: feeling of weakness, fatigue, weight loss or gain, chest tightness, papular rash, sweating.
- Nervous system: nystagmus, impaired visual field, hypoesthesia (diminished sensitivity to touch) or hyperesthesia (increased sensitivity to touch), myoclonic seizures, impaired cognitive functions (memory, visual thinking and mental performance), weakening of reflexes, dizziness in an upright position, fainting, restlessness, agitation, stupor, self-perception disorders (own actions are perceived, as if from the outside), depression, mood swings or depressed mood, panic attacks, hallucinations, lethargy, insomnia, abnormal dreams, difficulty in finding the right words, increased sexual drive, lack of orgasm, loss of taste, burning sensation on the skin and mucous membranes.
- Senses: eye pain, blurred vision, eye discomfort, eye fatigue, swelling of the eyelids, dry mucous membrane of the eye, watery eyes.
- Cardiovascular system: “tides”, and tachycardia.
- Respiratory system: dry mucous membranes of the nose, shortness of breath.
- Digestive system: loss of appetite, excessive salivation, decreased sensitivity of the mouth, gastro-esophageal reflux.
- Urine: urination disorders, urinary incontinence.
- Genitals system: sexual dysfunction, delayed ejaculation.
- Musculoskeletal system: stiffness, joint swelling, muscle spasms, muscle cramps, joint pain, muscle and back pain.
Rare side effects
- General: chills, fever, cold sweats.
- Nervous system: too elated, writer’s cramp, olfactory hallucinations, distorted perception of odors.
- Senses: strabismus, deterioration of peripheral vision, impaired depth perception and increased brightness of visual perception, feeling of vibrations when viewing objects, dilated pupils, eye irritation, sparks in fronft of the eyes, painful sensitivity to sound.
- Cardiovascular system: arrhythmia, bradycardia, first-degree atrioventricular block, cold extremities, increase or decrease in blood pressure.
- Respiratory system: rhinitis, epistaxis, nasal congestion, pharyngitis, cough, a feeling of compression in the throat, snoring.
- Digestive system: swallowing difficulty.
- Reproductive system: menstrual pain, menstrual disorders, pain and enlargement of breast, discharge from the breast.
- Musculoskeletal system: neck pain, spasm of the neck muscles.
Serious side effects
In rare cases, the drug may cause kidney failure, pancreatitis, and ascites.
Hives, skin rash, maculopapular rash, pruritus, and angioedema are possible.
Changes in laboratory parameters
Thrombocytopenia, and elevated CPK, AST and ALT are rare. In rare cases, there may be leucopenia, neutropenia, hypokalemia, hypercreatinemia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia.
Side effects during pregnancy and lactation
At present, data on the effect of lyrica on pregnancy and fetal development in humans are currently inadequate. Animal experiments showed the drug has a toxic effect on fertility. Therefore, during pregnancy, the drug should be used only in cases where the intended effect of its action outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. When taking lyrica, women should use contraception.
Information on whether lyrica is excreted with breast milk is also insufficient. During research, it was found that the drug is excreted in the milk of rats. With this in mind, breast-feeding should be stopped during treatment with the drug.
Side effects in children
Lyrica is not used in children. The efficacy and potential effect of lyrica in children and adolescents have not been established. Therefore, the drug is prescribed only for patients older than 17 years.
There are yet no reliable statistically valid data on the drug withdrawal. However, publications suggest that abrupt withdrawal of lyrica during short or long-term therapy may cause headaches, insomnia, depression, dizziness, anxiety, convulsions, diarrhea, nausea, flu-like symptoms, and sweating. Therefore, the dose should be reduced gradually.